Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Physical Demands In Handball Physical Education Essay

Physical Demands In Handball Physical Education Essay Indian physical education has covered a long distance from ancient to modern period, during this period it has faced so many problems.1 In ancient time Indian games and sports were very much concerned about the development of the physique and for the art of offence and defense. The games were also considered for the kind of recreation, which played a vital role in the development of a mans personality. Games and sports, music, fishing, boating, singing dancing and water sports, had played important role in the life of human being.2 Physical Demands in Handball Handball is an Olympic sport played professionally in many countries. In spite of professionalization, this game need to scientific information to increased handball players performance. This can be due to many reasons, one of them is that most of the research which has been conducted in this field has been published in Eastern European countries and is not readily accessible to the sport science community. Another reason can be attributed to the conservative approach of most coaches towards physical conditioning for handball players. Modem handball is a fast game, characterized by incredible athletic performances by athletes. In fact, modern handball players are able to perform many different moves like jumping, running, change of directions and technical movements in very short time and with an order determined by the tactical situation. Players run with and without the ball, in line and with different paths, jumping, throwing, passing and receiving in motion or during flight represent the technical characteristics of a modem top handball player. Then, to excel at the highest levels, it is important that training methodologies are developed on simple basis specificity. The closer to the demands of the performance, the better the training is. To obey to the law of specificity we have to know exactly what are the physiological demands of handball performance. Research in Handball Handball matches have duration of 60 minutes divided in two halves lasting 30 minutes each. During this time players cover a total distance ranging from 2000 to 6000 meters, based upon different situations position on the field, tactical defensive and offensive characteristics of the team and characteristics of the game itself and so far and so forth. In a work presented by Cuesta (1988) handball players of the Spanish national team have shown to cover the following distances based upon playing position Left wing-3557 meters, Right wing-4083 meters, Left back-3464 meters, Right back-2857 meters, Pivot player- 3531 meters. The above-mentioned distances are close to the ones recorded in Konzak Schake (in Cuesta, 1988) related to DDR players. In a study conducted in Italy with a specific apparatus Play Controller, (Phromos, Perugia) 5000 meters were covered by a right wing during an official match of the Italian Second league. It is important to affirm the total displacement of players on the field is affected by many different parameters. Tactical disposition, position on the field, characteristics of the match itself, are all factors which in some way can affect the amount of space covered by the players on the field. However, what is important to say is that handball players cover the total distance alternating high-intensity actions (sprinting, fast direction changes, jumping) with game phases characterized by relatively low metabolic demands due to the low intensity of the actions. It can be said then that the metabolic demands of modern handball involve the aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways. As a supportive evidence, Konzak and Schacke (in Cuesta, 1988), have shown that, during a Handball match, players perform 190 rhythm variations, 279 change of direction and 16 jumps. Then, based upon what these authors say, a handball player performs a total 485 high-intensity movements in 60 minutes and aver age of 8 per minute, above results show that handball players require lot of physical capacity during match situation. Necessity of Assessment in Handball Team handball is a complex sport, which requires players to have well developed aerobic and anaerobic capacities Motor ability such as a sprinting, jumping, flexibility and throwing velocity represent physical activities are considered as important aspects of the game and contribute to the high performance of the team. Successful performance requires explosive power of the leg and arms, sprinting velocity and kinaesthetic feeling in ball control. On the other hand in a modern time handball players model specific anthropometric characteristics play a supportive role in helping better performance of athletes under the actual competitive condition. Specifically, body, height, body mass, palm span and palm length are important in improving athletes performance and are considered as basic criterion for athletes selection in various playing position. Specific skills also considered as the fundamental and important aspects of the game. First consideration in the training programme in handba ll must be given to skill.3 AAHPER, one of the well known institute regarding health, physical education and recreation in America also made survey about skill test and norms. Skill test and norms always help the players to evaluate their performance in the game and to provide an impetus to improvements. Need of evaluation of Handball players.4 Need of evaluation of Handball Players As compare to other games handball is most popular and fastest game in the world. It needs good physical structure, physical fitness and skill. For handball game it is quite difficult to evaluate the player because coach, selection committee, physical education teachers have to consider the above aspects. Evaluation of the players is the important process for teaching and coaching, through evaluation, a coach, selection committee members, physical educator and players know the draw backs of their games. At the time of evaluation coach advice players to improve the draw backs in their games. Hence, the coach, selection committee member and players must be aware of some evaluation techniques, which enable him to measure the fitness and skill objectively and classify them initially as well as by measuring the progress made by them. Handball players require good physical fitness, good body structure and good fundamental skill of handball for top performance in handball.5 Evaluation of sportsman is a must to identify their area of weaknesses and designed training model for improving specific athlete deficiencies. It also helps to follow the athlete improvement during training and game session. There are various tests for physical activities and games which help to measure the playing abilities of the players in different games. The test helps the players to evaluate their performance, predict future performance, indicate weakness, place the athlete in appropriate training programme or training group, motivate the athlete and to provide an incentive for improvement. The tests also help the trainers, coaches, selection committee to measure players performance and to evaluate their own coaching procedure and programme. These, tests should be used For the selection process, but unfortunately at the time of selection, selection committee only consider performance of the player on the basis of single game situation as a selection criterion. Unavailability of proper norms for selection of senior handball players in Maharashtra and in India is one of the main the reason of it. So the researcher has decided to conduct the study entitled Reforms in the Norms of Selection procedure for Maharashtra State Senior Level Male Players in Handball Game 1.1. History of Handball Ancient History Game including the hand and a ball looks back on a unbelievably long tradition. Even if the rules and the way of playing were hardly in line with todays handball, the Urania game played by the Greek which had already been mentioned in Homers Odyssey or Harpaston played by the Romans described by Claudius Galenus (AD 110 200) among others may definitely be characterized as prototype of todays handball. Such precursors also existed in todays Central Europe. Minnesingers Walther von der Vogelweide (1170 1230) sang about a, catch ball game, whereas in the 16th century, the Frank Rabelais described a kind of game in which the hands were used for playing the ball. Another game similar to handball was played by Greenlands Intuits at the end of the 18th century. The actual beginnings of the game of handball didnt develop until the end of the 19th century. A corresponding game was held in Nyborg (Denmark) in 1897. From that point on, fixed rules for ball games played between teams emerged . Games such as Treibball played against or over a border (Grenzball or Raffball, Konigsberger Ball) were well-known. Moreover, there were games towards baskets or against nets (German netball, nevjall. Turmball ), and later on games towards goals without ball control. Players were not allowed to run with the ball and to hold it longer than three seconds (Handball 1906 in Sweden, Neuer Raffball, Torball). Further development included games towards goals with ball control. In this case, players were allowed to run three steps with the ball or to hold it for three seconds. A kind of game from the Czech Republic was called Hazena, a form of field handball which already included the division of the playing field into three parts characterizing field handball. However, countries such as Denmark, Germany and Sweden are considered as the real handball pioneers of modern times.6 Modern Development Field handball was pushed by German gymnastics teacher so that, alongside handball, it became popular as an alternative to football, especially for women. In 1917, Max Heiser formulated the first official handball rules for women. Two years later, Karl Schelenz added the rules for the men. In the 20s, handball became a national sport. On the occasion of a meeting in The Hague (Netherlands) in 1926, the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation appointed a commission for the elaboration of international playing rules for field handball. In 1928, the International Amateur Handball Federation (IAHF) was founded in Amsterdam on the occasion of the IX Olympic Games. One of the foundation members was Avery Brundage (USA) who later became IOC President in 1933; handball was included in the Olympic Programme. At the XI Olympic Games in Berlin, host Germany won the final and therefore the gold medal in the pouring rain in front of an audience of 100.000 people, beating Austria 10:6. One year after the end of World War II, representatives of eight nations met in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, and launched the International Handball Federation (IHF). It is considered founded on 11 July 1946. The nations; involved in the foundation are Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden and Swi tzerland. In 1960, the last Womens Outdoor World Championship was played whereas the last Mens Outdoor World Championship took place in 1996. At the XXXII Congress in Cairo, which has been the last official one so far, 167 member federations were counted. By now, handball is being played in 183 countries and the number of teams amounts to approximately 800,000. 1.2. History of Asian Handball Federation The march of the Asian Handball Federation had began when the Martyr Shaikh Fahad Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah head of the Kuwaiti delegation to the seventh Asian games, Tehran Iran 1974, presented a motion to the Executive Committee of the Asian Gamess requesting recognition of the handball game and also formation of the Asian Handball Federation. Consequently, in 1976, Handball Federations from all over Asia were invited to attend the establishment meeting during which representatives from fourteen Asian countries. Since its establishment in year 1974, AHF activities have been progressively expanding as its strategy has been focused on development and expansion of the handball game in the Asian continent. AHF members have been also actively involved in the remarkable achievements throughout the way.7 Table 1.1 Result of Asian Handball Championship Sr. No Year Host Country Gold Silver Bronze 1 1977 Kuwait Japan Korea China 2 1979 China Japan China Kuwait 3 1983 Korea Korea Japan Kuwait 4 1987 Jordan Korea Japan Kuwait 5 1989 China Korea Japan Kuwait 6 1991 Japan Korea Japan China 7 1993 Bahrain Korea Kuwait Japan 8 1995 Kuwait Kuwait Korea Bahrain 9 2000 Japan Korea China Japan 10 2002 Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi- Arabia 11 2004 Qatar Kuwait Japan Qatar 12 2006 Thailand Kuwait Korea Qatar 11 2008 Iran Korea Kuwait Saudi- Arabia 14 2010 Lebanon Korea Bahrain Japan 15 2012 Jeddah Proposed 1.3. World Championship In 1938, the first Indoor Handball World Championship was played in the Deutschlandhalle in Berlin. This first Tournament was held with only four participating teams. The first field handball WC was held in July of the same year in Berlin and other German cities, which was also won by Germany who were then Olympic champions (in 1936) and dual world champions. Both WC tournaments were administered by the IAHF (International Amateur Handball Federation), the forerunner organization of 1946 founded IHF, which was founded in 1928, and meant to be celebrational events for the l0th birthday of the Organization. The first World Championship took place in Germany in 1938, involving four teams from Europe. Throughout their history, the World Championships has been dominated by European teams any medals have yet to be won by non-Europeans.8 Table 1.2 Result of Handball World Championships Sr. No. Year Host Country Gold Silver Bronze 1 1938 Germany Germany Austria Sweden 2 1954 Sweden Sweden West Germany Czechoslovakia 3 1958 East Germany Sweden Czechoslovakia Germany 4 1961 West Germany Romania Czechoslovakia Sweden 5 1964 Czechoslovakia Romania Sweden Czechoslovakia 6 1967 Sweden Czechoslovakia Denmark Romania 7 1978 Denmark West Germany Soviet Union East Germany 8 1982 West Germany Soviet Union Yugoslavia Poland 9 1986 Switzerland Yugoslavia Hungary East Germany 10 1990 Czechoslovakia Sweden Soviet Union Romania 11 1993 Sweden Russia France Sweden 12 1995 Iceland France Croatia Sweden 11 1997 Japan Russia Sweden France 14 1999 Egypt Sweden Russia Yugoslavia 15 2001 France France Sweden Yugoslavia 16 2003 Portugal Croatia Germany France 17 2005 Tunisia Spain Croatia France 18 2007 Germany Germany Poland Denmark 19 2009 Croatia France Croatia Poland 20 2011 Sweden France Denmark Spain 21 2011 Spain Proposed 1.4. Handball in Olympics After 1936, field handball was no longer played at the games; Indoor handball was presented for the first time at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. The introduction of womens handball to the Games took place in 1976 in Montreal. The Soviet Union won this first womens Olympic competition, taking home two gold medals after the 11-team mens competition and the six-team womens one.9 Table 1.3 Result of Handball Olympics Championships Sr. No. Year Host Country Gold Silver Bronze 1 1936 Berlin Germany Austria Switzerland 2 1948-1968 Not include in Olympic programme 3 1972 Munich Yugoslavia Czechoslovakia Romania 4 1976 Montreal Soviet Union Romania Poland 5 1980 Moscow East Germany Soviet Union Romania 6 1984 Los Angeles Yugoslavia West Germany Romania 7 1988 Seoul Soviet Union South Korea Yugoslavia 8 1992 Barcelona Unified Team Sweden Spine 9 1996 Atlanta Croatia Sweden France 10 2000 Sydney Russia Sweden Spain 11 2004 Athens Croatia Germany Russia 12 2008 Beijing France Iceland Spain 13 2012 London France Sweden Croatia 1.5. History of Handball in India In India, handball has become famous among other sports played at Schools, colleges, university, clubs and professionally. It is world second fastest game and always considered as a high fitness, perception, speed, timing, accuracy and agility. With its rules and regulation and playing set up is being popularly played in India. It is a devoting and challenging game. Indian athletes also represent National and International competitions in this game but lake of scientific Training, Knowledge, dirty politics, quota system research based information the results of handball players are very poor in international area. Handball entered India in early seventies with filed version (11 a side) outdoor game and Indian handball federation was formed in 1971, with 16 states as its units was played in its infant days in India, first senior national championship held at Haryana (Rohatak). Soon it spread all over the country but state like Punjab, Haryana, Jammu-Kashmir, A.P and Maharashtra have e dge over other states as far as standards and popularity of handball in India, On date IHF 33 units (States, Boards, Steel Plants and Railways) Punjab Police, Services C.I.C.F, C.R.P.F Professional team which dominated handball Scene the country. The place of this game in Asian was given in 1982 which was held in India at Delhi. This game was included all India-Inter University in 1979-80 and first All India Inter University held at Nagpur, Nagpur university won the Gold Medal, Silver Medal was won by Punjab, Bronze Medal was won by Osmania and Kurukshetra University got fourth place in men section. Women section Nagpur University P.A.U. University and Bombay University were bagged Gold, Silver and Bronze accordingly. Handball was included is a National games. Services, Punjab, Haryana, Jammu-Kashmir, Kerala, A.P and Maharashtra these states have given many International players to India. Indian team has participated at various international tournaments. Out of which India could win Second youth commonwealth handball championship held at Dhaka in 1995 after being runner up in 1990 at New Delhi, youth team also got second Place in 1997 commonwealth youth handball championship held at Edinburgh U.K. Apart from participation of India team some in club teams like Services, Punjab police, SAI, Gujarat and National Handball academy club participate in championship held at Malaysia, South Africa and Cochin. Services Handball team participated in world military Games. Punjab Police team remained runners up in South Africa. After infusion of handball events in police arena, it has generated more competition in national and state championships. Presently services team is the senior national champion. Similarly handball was introduced Maharashtra in 1972 at Nagpur and first handball state championship held at Nagpur. Since handball is most popular team game in Maharashtra and provides many quality International players. Presently Pune District team was champion of State Championship.10 Table 1.4 Result of Handball National Championships Sr. No. Year Host Country Gold Silver Bronze 1. 1972 Rothak Haryana A.P. 2. 1973 Hyderabad A.P. U.P. 3. 1973 Pune Punjab Bihar J K 4. 1975 Bangalore Bihar A.P. J K 5. 1976 Jamshedpur I.A.F. Bihar 6. 1977 Nizamabad I.A.F. Bihar 7. 1978 Shrinagar I.A.F. J K 8. 1979 Hyderabad I.A.F. A.P. 9. 1979 Ludhiana I.A.F. Maharashtra J K 10. 1980 Jammu I.A.F. Maharashtra 11. 1981 Hyderabad I.A.F. J K 12. 1982 Delhi I.A.F. Maharashtra A.P. 13. 1983 Wardha 14. 1985 Quilon I.A.F. A.P. Punjab 15. 1986 Bhadreswar Services Maharashtra J K 16. 1986 Bilaspur Services Steel Plants Punjab 17. 1987 J K Services Steel Plant Punjab 18. 1988 Jaipur Services Steel Plant Haryana 19. 1990 Hissar J K Services Haryana 20. 1991 Bhilai Services Steel Plant Punjab 21. 1992 Shimoga Services Steel Plant J K 22. 1992 Bilaspur Services Steel Plant J K 23. 1993 Ludhiana 24. 1994 Lucknow Services Steel Plant U.P. 25. 1994 Jamshedpur Services Karnataka Punjab 26. 1995 Warangal Services Punjab Steel Plant 27. 1996 Nagpur Services Punjab Steel Plant 28. 1997 Jallandar 29. 1997 Trivandrum Services Steel Plant Punjab 30. 1998 Vijayawada Services M.P. J K 31. 1999 Pune Services Rajasthan M.P. 32. 2000 Calicut 33. 2001 Bhilai M.P. Services Punjab 34. 2002 Jammu J K Chhattisgarh Services 35. 2003 Bhilai Chhattisgarh Rajasthan Services 36. 2004 Renikot Punjab Chhattisgarh Services 37. 2004 Jamshedpur Jharkhand SSCB Chhattisgarh 38. 2005 Bhilai Chhattisgarh Kerala Punjab 39. 2006 Ludhiana Punjab SSCB Chhattisgarh 40. 2007 Bilaspur Punjab SSCB Chhattisgarh 41. 2008 Bangalore SSCB Chhattisgarh Punjab 42. 2009 Vishakhapatnam SSCB Punjab Chhattisgarh 43. 2010 Kolkata Chhattisgarh SSCB Punjab 44. 2011 Indore SSCB Punjab Delhi 1.6. Statement of the Problems On the basis of overall observations, experience and general discussions which have been made with experts, referees, national and international players and reviewing of literature on the same theme, it is opined that there is an essential need to frame standard criteria for the selection of efficient and suitable players for handball game to be played at state or national level. Accordingly the present researcher has designed the following statement of problems: 1) Selection of players only on the basis of individual performance in a particular match is not always desirable. 2) In the selection process, basic motor qualities and skills are the most important factors to be considered in order to improve overall performance of the team in the long run. 3) There is no any criterion devised on the date for senior handball players in Maharashtra to provide guidelines for selection of suitable players. 1.7. Significance of the study There are an only a few research studies that have been conducted on this direction in India. Hence, as a serious dearth of research on it, the present study is an immense important to handball coaches, trainer and physical education teachers for making effective coaching and training as well as framing strategies for selecting suitable handball players in a team. It will be proved so fruitful to the selection committees to assess and evaluate the individual performance of handball players to use them for state, national level handball teams. The study may also provide an opportunity and encouragement to the sports talent to go through the standard norms and criteria for their practice in order to enhance their performance for getting selection in state, national team. Besides, the study is to provide an opportunity to research fellow to conduct further research in new dimension in the competitive arena. 1.8. Objectives of the study 1. To identify the performance variables of team handball. 2. To measure selected Morphological, Physical Fitness components and Handball skills. 3. To develop the Norms for Senior handball State level players. 4. To design grading scales for Senior handball State level players. 5. To find out Physical Fitness and Skill status of senior handball players on the basis of developed norms. 1.9. Hypotheses 1. The subjects have performed the fitness and skill test truthfully and with full capacity. 2. The subjects are medically, physically and psychologically fit for tests conducted by the researcher. 3. Maharashtra State Handball Association will permit to conduct the test on the subjects. 1.10. Delimitation of the study 1. This study is restricted to male senior handball players only. 2. This study measures the results of selected morphological, physical fitness and skills only. 3. The study geographical restricted to the Maharashtra state only. 1.11. Limitations of the study 1. The subjects covered under the study from various districts and regions of Maharashtra states having different economical status, diet and training. These are highly impossible to control, hence are limitation to study. 2. Heredity and environmental background of subjects may affect their performance in matches and they have not been controlled. . 1.12. Definitions In order to clarify the further discussion in the study, the following terms have adopted. Norms 11 Norms are performance standards based on analysis of scores. They are developed by collecting scores for a large number of individuals of the same gender and similar age, experience, ability and other such characteristics. Norms may be developed at the National, state or local level. Percentile, T-scores and Z-scores are forms of norms. Pcrcentile12 For the current study the percentile refers to a point in a distribution of scores below which a given percentage of the scores fall. Morphology13 It is a systematic study of external structure and form. Standing Height14 It is the maximum height of the individual when standing erect on a horizontal surface with his head and face in Frankfurt horizontal plane. It is the straight height of the subject (bare-footed) up to the point vertex. It is generally in meters nearest to half of the centimetre. Body weight15 Weight of the nude human body with empty bowels, is known as a body weight. It is measured by the help of weighing machine, is recorded in kilogram nearest to half of kilogram. Physical fitness16 It is the optimum ability to excel in physical strength, stamina and suppleness with respect to status, development and maintenance (SDM). Physical fitness has also defined as ones capacity to perform routine tasks with ease without any fatigue having sufficient extra energy for leisure time activities (WHO) Muscular Strength17 Muscular strength may be defined as the maximal muscular force or tension used in the creation or prevention of the movement in one maximal effort of a muscle group. Muscular Endurance18

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